Brookline Historical Publication Society
PUBLICATIONS, NO. 18.
Brookline in the Anti-Slavery Movement
By Harold Parker Williams
J. Murray Kay Prize Essay for 1899.
On the 6th of January, 1832, fifteen determined men met in the African Baptist Church on Joy street, Boston, and founded the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. Among them were Samuel E. Sewall, who in his early life lived on Cypress street, Brookline. He was the great-great grandson of Chief Justice Sewall, the old Brookline land-owner, who in 1700 published "The Selling of Joseph," the first anti-slavery tract written in the United States. Samuel Sewall, with Ellis Gray Loring, afterward a noted citizen of this town, represented the more conservative element of the meeting; Garrison and Johnson the more uncompromising. The conservatives at first refused to agree to the constitution that was presented, but they soon signed, and entered heart and soul into the work of the society.
This little assembly on Joy street inaugurated the anti-slavery movement that in 1861 culminated in the Civil War. It aroused the whole of Eastern Massachusetts, and in almost every town there sprang up a small body of men eager to forward the good work.
In Brookline, however, until the year 1837, there was no such body. Samuel Philbrick alone kept the spark of anti-slavery feeling alive in that very conservative community. Mr. Philbrick came to the town in 1830 and purchased a fine house and estate on Walnut street. There he lived quietly, taking great pleasure in his beautiful home and fine garden until the spring of 1832. At that time he began to take an active part in the work of the new-formed society and became the first Brookline abolitionist.
Scarcely anything is known of his struggles against the bitter opposition of his pro-slavery neighbors until the winter of 1837. That season the noted Grimke' sisters spent at the Philbrick house. They became a well-known sight to the people of Brookline, and especially to the small boys, who greeted their unique appearance in bloomer costume with hoots and jeers.
On one occasion during their stay the sisters addressed a select audience of ladies, assembled in the Philbrick parlors. No men were supposed to be present, but in a little room leading out of the back parlor, an interested listener, sat John G. Whittier with Mr. Philbrick. Among the ladies present was Mrs. Dr. Pierce. She was a supporter of anti-slavery, but her husband, the minister at the Parish Church, differed with her in the matter. Although all the abolitionists attended Dr. Pierce's church, it is not known that the pastor ever came to favor the movement.
An interesting episode in connection with Dr. Pierce's congregation occurred about the same time. Mr. Philbrick, at the recommendation of Wendell Phillips, had taken a little negro girl in destitute circumstances into his own family. On Sunday he took the girl to church with him and she sat in the Philbrick pew.
Now in the Parish Church there was a "nigger pew" high above the front gallery. There all colored persons were supposed to sit, although the only one that is known to have done so was old Susy Backus, or "Aunt Sukey," as she was called.
So when the child was seen sitting with Mr. Philbrick there was great excitement throughout the congregation. One family left the church, and the decorum of the service was nearly destroyed.
Then it was that poor old Dr. Pierce, hating to have any such feeling exist among his parishioners, went up to Mr. Philbrick's one night and gravely expostulated with him. Mr. Philbrick replied that if the girl could not go to church and sit with the family, he himself would stay away. And after that he never again entered the church, although members of his family attended later.
The poor little negress was compelled in a few years to leave Brookline, as she could never be happy in such an uncharitable community.
The public sentiment at this time against the abolitionists was very strong. Even the children at school shared in the general feeling. Most of the boys were sons of Whigs, and the children of men of any other "political complexion" were considered as being little less than devils. One can imagine how the children of an anti-slavery sympathizer were regarded. Little William Philbrick was continually taunted by his companions with being a "bobolitionist," and was often cruelly abused. He was undoubtedly the most unpopular boy at school.
About 1837 the anti-slavery movement in Brookline received a decided impetus by the moving of Mr. Ellis Gray Loring to the town. This gentleman was considered by many to be the most eminent abolitionist in Boston, and his name is mentioned in connection with almost every anti-slavery proceeding from 1830 to 1858. In the previous year Mr. Loring had made a reputation for himself by successfully conducting the case of the negro child "Med," and by his speech before the committee of the Legislature.
Mrs. Eliza Lee Follen came to Brookline the same year as Mr. Loring, and opened a school on the corner of Washington and Cypress streets. A strong anti-slavery sympathizer, she naturally became intimate with Mr. Philbrick and Mr. Loring, and the three formed the nucleus of the movement in town; Mrs. Follen moved to West Roxbury in 1841.
During those years the abolitionist party became stronger, and it soon ceased to be a stigma to be known as a member of it. The younger men began to come in and added new life to the work. Mr. William I. Bowditch and Mr. William P. Atkinson were among the new members, the latter being a teacher in Mrs. Follen's school. At this time the abolitionists attempted to hold an anti-slavery meeting in the Town Hall, but Mr. A. W. Goddard, one of the selectmen, refused them the use of the hall, as he feared the meeting would cause a mob.
In 1840, Mr. Philbrick, who was the leader of the Brookline abolitionists, was elected treasurer of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, which office he retained for fifteen years or more. He was an intimate friend of the Boston workers—Garrison, Phillips and Wright—and these often visited him on Walnut street.
When the "Liberator" started in 1831, Mr. Philbrick aided Garrison materially by supplying him with the necessary funds. He never wrote for the paper, but his financial aid was always to be relied on.
Mrs. Follen was the literary light of the Brookline workers, and many of her interesting articles are to be found in the "Liberty Bell."
When Harrison [Editor's Note
: William Henry Harrison] was elected, November 10th, 1840, the abolitionists had a great celebration. They borrowed a cannon from Moses Jones on Cypress street and drew it up to the top of Goddard Hill. There it was fired forty-nine times - fifty shots were intended, but the powder gave out after forty-nine charges had been fired. After the cannonading on the hill, a good-natured raid was made on Mr. Goddard, who was nearly eaten out of house and home.
While the men were thus strengthening the anti-slavery spirit in town, the women and children were not idle. A little sewing society of girls was meeting regularly at Mr. Philbrick's, to make garments for the slaves. To this society Anna Philbrick, the daughter of Dr. Pierce, and the girls of Lucy Searle's boarding-school belonged. While one read the others sewed, and, although small in numbers, the society accomplished much work.
During the stirring times from 1840 to 1855, the anti-slavery fairs were held yearly in Tremont Temple or in old Horticultural Hall. Several of the Brookline ladies, among whom were Mrs. Pierce and Mrs. Philbrick, were much interested in the fairs, and joined enthusiastically with the Boston ladies in making them a success. Anna, the daughter of Mrs. Philbrick, generally presided over one of the tables at the fair.
In 1845, Mr. Edward Atkinson did his first anti-slavery work. He went around getting signatures to a protest against the annexation of Texas. The admission of that state into the Union was a matter of life or death to the slave power; for if Texas had not been admitted, slavery in America must speedily have died out. But throughout the rest of the country, as in Brookline, the majority were passive, and would not attempt to influence the action of Congress.
The passage of the Fugitive Slave Law, on September 9th, 1850, made a great change in the general feeling in Brookline. Before that time it was in no way an anti-slavery town. Its citizens were too conservative and aristocratic to take kindly to any new ideas which were antagonistic to the opinions that had always prevailed; consequently it was almost impossible for the Brookline abolitionists to make headway against notions of such long standing. But in 1850 a genuine anti-slavery feeling began to appear in Brookline, and from that time on there was a steady decline of the pro-slavery sentiment, and a consequent strengthening of the abolition party.
Important factors in this popular change of opinion were the anti-slavery meetings that began to be held in the town. Not so many of them were held in Brookline as in other more enthusiastic places, but the meetings that did take place were always very interesting and were well conducted. They were part of an educational movement to create and strengthen public sentiment against slavery, and undoubtedly the eloquence of the orators won over many supporters.
About 1850, many of the so-called private meetings were held in the town at the houses of the prominent abolitionists, attendance being only upon invitation. Great care was always taken lest any pro-slavery or even any passive anti-slavery sympathizer should be asked. Owing to this precaution these meetings were conducted with almost as much secrecy as the Underground Railway.
Well-known men were engaged from all parts of the state to speak. Among those obtained were such men as Dr. John G. Palfrey, professor in the Harvard Theological School, Mr. Newhall of Lynn, and the first President of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Mr. Arnold Buffum. And on one occasion those in the audience were fortunate enough to be addressed by the eminent author, Ralph Waldo Emerson.
The whereabouts of many of the meetings are unknown, but it is certain that several were held at Mr. Philbrick's and at Mr. Bowditch's. At a meeting in Faneuil Hall, on October 15, 1850, several Brookline citizens assisted in forming the Boston Vigilance Committee, namely, Edward Atkinson, William P. Atkinson, William I. Bowditch, George J. Fisher, and E. G. Loring, who was chosen on the finance committee. For ten years these men rendered active and efficient service in behalf of runaway slaves, and were concerned in all the noted fugitive slave cases. When Shadrach was seized, in February, 1851, E. G. Loring was the first to volunteer for his defense. Later the same gentleman made the first contribution of money ($25) when funds were needed to bail out abolitionists arrested for aiding fugitives.
In the autumn of the same year occurred the escape of William and Ellen Crafts, the most interesting of all the Boston fugitives. These two formerly lived in Macon, Georgia, where William worked as a carpenter, and Ellen as a lady's maid. They were well used and had little ground for complaint, but they longed for freedom and made their plans to escape. Accordingly, one dark December night they stole away and started on their perilous trip northward. As Ellen was a very light mulatto, she disguised herself as a young Southern planter, and William took the part of her body-servant. Being unable to write, Ellen kept her right arm bandaged as an excuse for not signing her name. To keep up the deception, William went down into the kitchen each night and made a fresh poultice for "pore young massa." After passing through many dangers, they finally reached Boston and liberty. There they found true friends in Mr. Bowditch and the Lorings.
At one time Mr. Bowditch invited the Crafts out to his house in Linden place. As he wished to show them to the people, he called a meeting for the purpose in the Town Hall and introduced them to many of the citizens of Brookline. There was much excitement over the affair. Captain Sanderson, Deacon Griggs and Samuel Crafts were there, the last-named gentleman being especially interested in the story of the escape of the two. After the meeting the night was spent in Brookline, and next morning Mr. Bowditch drove the Crafts back to their lodgings on Cambridge street, Boston.
The fugitives remained there quietly until October, 1851. Then it was learned that William's old master was in town looking for him. The Vigilance Committee immediately came to the Crafts' aid. William was hidden in the South End, while Ellen was driven by Dr. Bowditch to the house of Ellis Gray Loring in Brookline.
Mr. Loring boarded in the front part of George Searle's house on New lane (now Cypress street), near Brighton road (now Washington street).
Unfortunately at that time he was away from home, but Miss Mary R. Courzon, who lived in the same house, took Mrs. Ellen under her protection. This was on Saturday, November 1st, and Ellen stayed with Miss Courzon until Sunday evening. Then William unexpectedly arrived, and the happy reunited couple were shut up in one of the Loring rooms. Soon, however, William reappeared, saying that he could not remain in the house while the owner was ignorant of his presence. The Fugitive Slave law had made a man who had hidden or helped a fugitive upon his way, liable to a fine of one thousand dollars or imprisonment for six months, and if the slave was freed an additional thousand dollars might have to be paid to satisfy the owner. This noble-hearted fugitive, William Craft, was unwilling to bring such a penalty upon his friend. In vain did his friends argue with him. His purpose was not to be shaken, and the result was that the two Crafts were finally taken over to Mr. Philbrick's.
There the fugitives were concealed in the hired man's room, a small attic in the ell, at the back of the house. They remained three days in that small place, only going out a short time each evening for exercise. Mrs. Philbrick said that she was more afraid of their getting hurt with the pistol that they constantly carried, than of their being captured. Early on the morning of November 6, the fourth day of the Crafts' confinement, Theodore Parker, accompanied by John Parkman and Hannah Stevenson, drove out in his large carryall after them. Dr. Parker's only weapon was a hatchet, and when Dr. Bowditch had added a pistol to his equipment, the five drove back in the darkness to Exeter place. There on the following day Dr. Parker legally married the happy fugitives and sent them off to Canada. At Halifax they sailed for Liverpool, where they arrived in safety.
Mr. Bowditch was away at the time of the Crafts' escape, but he wrote home giving instructions to his wife to aid the fugitives in every possible way. Mrs. Bowditch had, however, no opportunity to render them any assistance.
Years afterward William Craft came back to Brookline and visited with pleasure at Mr. Bowditch's and at the Philbrick house.
The Craft affair aroused considerable feeling in the village, and it is thought if it had been known at the time that Mr. Bowditch and Mr. Loring had harbored the fugitive slaves, those gentlemen might have been mobbed.
Owing to their connection with the Boston Vigilance Committee, several Brookline citizens were associated in the work of the mysterious Underground Railroad. One of the two western routes that led from Boston to the New Bedford road lay directly through Brookline. The house of Mr. Bowditch in Linden place was a station, and a slave sent out from Boston would lodge with him over night, and in the morning the fugitive would be taken in a carriage as far as Newton to the house of William Jackson, a man devoted to " the cause." The next stage of the journey was by rail to Worcester, where this route and the New Bedford road joined, and whence an easy trip to Vermont was possible.
Many of the fugitives came concealed in coasting vessels, and the Vigilance Committee were especially watchful for this class of runaways. An interesting case occurred on July 15th, 1853. On the morning of that day the committee were notified that a slave was secreted in the brig Florence from Wilmington, anchored off Fort Independence. Six men, including Mr. Bowditch of Brookline, Mr. Kemp and Mr. Browne, hastily called together, put off from Long Wharf about nine o'clock in the "Moby Dick," a vessel owned by the Vigilance Committee. At starting, Mr. Bowditch asked the captain, Austin Bearse, how he had planned to rescue the slave. The latter replied that he had no plan, but would depend on the inspiration of the moment. As the party came alongside the coaster, Captain Bearse called out to a man on deck: "Is the cap'n aboard?" "No, sir." "Is the first mate there?" "I'm the man." " Well, I want that nigger damned quick! " Supposing that the stranger had authority, the mate, without hesitation, produced the poor slave from his tiny pen at the keel of the vessel. And in about two minutes from the time that they hailed the ship, the triumphant party was headed back for the city with the negro safe on board. Mr. Bowditch, always awake to the humor of even the most dangerous situation, could not restrain his laughter to think how easily the mate had been fooled. The boat soon reached South Boston Point. From that place Mr. Bowditch, accompanied by Mr. Browne, drove the fugitive to Brookline, reaching there in time for dinner. In the afternoon the slave was sent on to Mr. Jackson, and from there safely reached Canada. "
Although it has been previously stated that after 1850 there was a steady increase in the anti-slavery feeling in Brookline, it must be admitted that for a few years the increase was very slow. There was no longer any marked demonstration against the abolitionists, but the conservatism and passiveness of such men as Dr. Shurtleff, Benjamin Guild and William A. Wellman was harder for the abolitionists to overcome than an active opposition. These citizens and the majority of their townsmen wished to let the matter take its own course, and did not favor the radical opinions of the anti-slavery party.
That body of men was even willing to violate the law to accomplish that which they felt to be right. They would connive at, if not openly encourage, any course to free a slave, and in so doing believed that they were carrying out a higher law than that of Congress.
Mr. Bowditch and Mr. Philbrick were the most extreme of the Brookline abolitionists. They never voted, except for town officers, and probably considered that the constitution was as Phillips said, "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell." Mr. Bowditch had given up his office of United States Commissioner when he found that he could not support the constitution, and Mr. Philbrick refused to use any sugar or molasses that came from a slave state.
Naturally, many were opposed to such violent sentiments as these, and some who would have joined the anti-slavery cause were kept from doing so by the unlawful actions of its advocates.
The rendition of Anthony Burns, in May, 1854, converted many to the anti-slavery cause. When people saw the wretched slave dragged through the streets of Boston, their feelings of humanity were aroused, and they began to realize what a barbarous institution slavery was.
So much excitement resulted from the capture of Burns that a determined effort was made to rescue him. A special meeting was convened in Faneuil Hall, Friday evening, May 26th, two days after his seizure. Mr. William I. Bowditch was secretary of this meeting. About ten o'clock a cry was raised at the rear of the hall that Anthony Burns was being rescued, and a wild rush to the Court House ensued.
There Thomas W. Higginson, a former resident of Brookline, at the head of a few determined men, was battering down the side door of the Court House. In the square, on guard, was Edward Atkinson, a Brookline vigilant. Atkinson discovered, looking on, Henry Hallett, son of the counsel for the claimants of Anthony Burns, and calling some neighbors to his aid, he hustled the indignant man out of the square.
Warrants were served next day on all those known to have been concerned in the attack on the Court House, and Mr. Atkinson only saved himself from arrest by shaving off his mustache and having his hair cut.
Shortly after this affair, Mr. Loring became one of the proposers of the "Defensive League of Freedom." Nothing more is known of this society, than that it was formed to protect anti-slavery sympathizers who had been arrested for aiding fugitives. Mr. Loring, in a year's time, moved to Winter street, Boston. At his departure Brookline lost one of its most public-spirited, influential citizens. He was probably the most moderate of the Brookline abolitionists, and never fully approved of the policy of Garrison and Phillips.
In 1854 Martin Kennard moved into town. He was an ardent sympathizer with the anti-slavery movement, and was at once enrolled in the ranks of the Vigilance Committee.
One night in October, 1854, a slave was rescued from the brig Cameo, and hidden in Lewis Haydn's house in Boston. Two weeks after, his hiding place was discovered. So Mr. Bowditch was notified, and in the evening he drove into Cambridge street with his carryall and span. There he found a greatly terrified negro. With the help of Austin Bearse the man was disguised in woman's clothes, and the three started for Concord. They drove through Cambridge, Somerville and Medford, arriving at their destination about one o'clock in the morning. The team was put up at Allen's tavern, and the negro was taken to the house of Judge Brooks. After resting at the inn until about three, Mr. Bowditch and Captain Bearse started for home, and reached Brookline in time for breakfast.
The next runaway that Mr. Bowditch received was Henry "Box" Brown. Henry Brown had been shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia in a box charged to Adams Express Company. He was twenty-four hours in his close quarters, and was ever afterwards known as Henry "Box" Brown. A "jollification" of negroes was held to welcome him to Brookline, and all sorts of games were played. That of tossing up an orange especially amused and interested the guests.
A similar affair occurred when the Smith Colored School of Boston came out at Mr. Bowditch's invitation. A special car was provided for them by the superintendent of the railroad, and the children were amused and entertained by a magic lantern.
Another, and the final incident, known in connection with the Underground Railroad in Brookline, took place about the same time. A black, suffering from nervous fright, was brought out to Mr. Bowditch's house. He could not sleep, and aroused his host at midnight to tell him that he must travel by the stars. Seeing his mental condition, Mr. Bowditch harnessed his horse and took the poor fellow over to Mr. Jackson's. From there he was sent along the usual route.
While the Brookline abolitionists were working so unremittingly to aid fugitive slaves, they did not in the least relax their efforts to further " the cause" in their own town.
From 1854 to 1860 public meetings were frequently held. They were similar in character to the private ones already described, only on a much larger scale. Mr. Bowditch was accustomed to give notice of these meetings by hand-written placards. These he would tack up quietly in the evening around Walnut street and up toward Coolidge Corner, but because of the unpopularity of the movement, more than half of the notices were generally torn down.
The anti-slavery meetings were probably the most interesting and exciting that have ever been held in Brookline. Occasionally the presence and story of a fugitive slave brought the horrors of slavery more vividly before the audience. No more spirited speakers than the abolitionists ever existed, and as Emerson says, "Eloquence was dog cheap at anti-slavery meetings." Because of this fact there was generally a large attendance at the meetings. The audience was seldom disrespectful, and only once or twice did a few rough fellows insult the speaker or Mr. Bowditch, the chairman. These, however, were not heeded, as they were men from whom one would rather receive insult than praise.
Free speech was always allowed, but some abused the privilege by speaking too often. Because of the diversity of the speakers, the pathetic and comic were many times intermingled, and sometimes even a serious quarrel took place.
Mr. Bowditch, the most prominent abolitionist in Brookline, is reported to have made a fine address in calling one of the meetings to order. This gentleman, because of his practice in lecturing, was much at home on the platform, and conducted the meetings with credit to himself and to the town. The most effective and stimulating meeting ever held in the old Town Hall was in 1855. Wendell Phillips was the speaker, and the hall was crowded to its utmost capacity. As Phillips, the most eloquent man of his time, addressed them, the audience swayed back and forth, moved by his great personal magnetism. It is needless to say that the meeting was a great success and one that was long remembered.
In 1854 the attention of the abolitionists was directed to the settlement of Kansas. On July 30th, of that year, a band of emigrants, sent out by the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society, settled at Lawrence, Kansas, and set up " squatter government." This town was named for Amos A. Lawrence of Brookline.
He was one of the heads of the society; and furnished ten thousand dollars for the various anti-slavery expeditions.
Another Brookline man closely connected with the settlement of Kansas was Edward Atkinson. At that time he was a young man about twenty-seven years old, and was a clerk in an auction store. Full of zeal for the movement, he carried around a subscription paper for raising money to buy the arms and equipments that were needed. Although not a matter of personal hazard, it was exciting work, and the large sum of money raised in that way spoke well for the energy and ability of the enthusiastic young abolitionist.
The struggle in Kansas between the pro-slavery and the anti-slavery factions raged until 1858, and the aid sent to John Brown, and others was largely the result of the labors of Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Atkinson.
The fight over Kansas more than anything else turned the public feeling of Brookline toward anti-slavery. From 1854 on, there was a decided increase in the number of abolitionists.
The John Brown insurrection at Harper's Ferry came in the autumn of 1859. Its effect upon "the cause" in Brookline was decidedly injurious. Few approved of the rash, unlawful undertaking, and undecided people were deterred from joining the anti-slavery forces. Shortly after Brown's execution an attempt was made to arrest all those who had been connected with him and great excitement prevailed everywhere. At that time John Brown's son, for whom there was a great hue and cry, came to the house of Mr. Bowditch. He was armed to the teeth and the servant girl was greatly terrified at his fierce appearance. When Brown was told by his host that weapons were not necessary, he replied: " Perhaps not, but it is safer. I am resolved never to be taken alive." No attempt to arrest him, however, was made during his stay in Brookline.
Mr. Samuel Philbrick, the early and constant friend of the slaves, died September 19th, 1859, aged seventy-nine years. Like Ellis Gray Loring, who had passed away the previous year, Mr. Philbrick did not live to see the work fully accomplished to which he had devoted his life. He realized, however, that a crisis was close at hand and nearly his last words to his son were, " William, you will live to see a war over this slavery business." Mr. Philbrick left a bequest of five hundred dollars to William Lloyd Garrison.
The last and most peaceful period of the anti-slavery movement in Brookline, was from the time of John Brown's raid to the beginning of the Civil War. For then, despite the temporary revulsion of feeling caused by the former event, the sentiment of the whole town changed and anti-slavery became as popular as it had formerly been the reverse. Affairs ran smoothly; there was no opposition to abolitionists and they were considered the most influential men of the town.
An exciting event occurred in Boston during that period. On Sunday, December 21, 1860, when Wendell Phillips was returning from Music Hall after delivering that terrible and merciless speech, entitled " Mobs and Freedom," he was surrounded by a raging mob. Undoubtedly blood would have been shed had not a few brave men protected the orator and escorted him home. Mr. Kennard of Brookline was one of this number and he retained his place at Phillips' right elbow through the enraged populace.
At the election of Lincoln the same year, the town had gone wild. The feeling was so intense that any measure, however severe, would have been countenanced and approved. Shortly after, Mr. Warren Goddard, accompanied by his nephew, John May, took the trip to Washington to see the president inaugurated. There were rumors that a riot would be raised and those gentlemen wished to help defend Lincoln if necessary. No outbreak was made, thanks to General Scott, and Mr. Goddard missed having an exciting time.
After the bombardment of Fort Sumter there was no holding back by even the most conservative of Brookline's citizens. Every man, woman and child desired to put down the Rebellion, secretly hoping, however, in that way to emancipate the slaves. Anything became legal at that time and patriotism did for many what a feeling of humanity had failed to do. On April 15, 1861, the town, for the first time since 1831, was united.
Notes from the Essay by Florence E. Barrett.
(a) During the excitement of the Garrison mob in 1835, George Thompson, the English reformer who had come over to aid Garrison, and was the occasion of the disturbance, was secreted in Brookline.
(b) A committee called on Mr. Philbrick and urged that the child be put into the negro pew if only for the sake of peace. Mr. Philbrick refused, and the next Sunday the child was taken to church, protected against the violence of a mob of boys, only by walking beside Mr. Philbrick's daughter. After the party was quietly seated in the pew, one of the most influential men of the parish, unable to see the woolly head of the child above the high-backed seat, sent his little boy down the long aisle to find out whether she were there. The boy reported her presence, and the father, highly indignant, arose and strode ostentatiously out of the church.
(c) It is generally admitted that without the aid of Amos A. Lawrence and Eli Thayer, Kansas would have been a slave state... When John Brown came to Boston to collect money and rifles for the settlers, Mr. Lawrence was of great assistance to him. John Brown came to Brookline several times to see Mr. Lawrence, who was fond of calling him the " Miles Standish of Kansas." In the South Mr. Lawrence was not distinguished from the abolitionists, and after John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, where he used some of the rifles furnished by Mr. Lawrence for the Kansas settlers, Senator Jefferson Davis alluded to Mr. Lawrence as the "backer of John Brown."... John Brown's son was concealed in Brookline several days at Mr. Bowditch's house while the United States authorities were trying to arrest him for his part in the affair.
(d) So great was the opposition to these [Brookline] meetings that Mr. Bowditch was obliged to post the notices at night, and even then half of them were torn down before morning Miss Susan Cabot and Mrs. Eliza Lee Follen, widow of Dr. Charles Follen, were most zealous advocates of anti-slavery, and were always present at these meetings.
(e) Mr. Loring was living in the Searle house, the other half of which was occupied by George Searle. This house was situated on Cypress street, at the corner of which is now Searle avenue, but has since been removed to the marshes near the Parkway.
1. Lewis Tappan, the noted New York abolitionist, lived in Brookline from 1816-1830.
2. During the movement in Brookline, a former citizen of the town, Samuel Aspinwall Goddard, was writing numerous anti-slavery letters and articles in Birmingham, England.
1. William I. Bowditch.
2. William D. Philbrick.
3. Dr. Augustine Shurtleff.
4. Thomas W. Higginson.
5. Mrs. Edward S. Philbrick.
6. J. Emory Hoar.
7. Martin P. Kennard.
8. Mrs. Henry V. Poor.
9. A. Warren Goddard.
10. Mrs. Ednah D. Cheney.
11. George S. Cushing.
12. John J. May.
13. Edward Atkinson.
14. Fugitive Slave Days. Bearse.
15. Memorial History of Boston.
16. Underground Railroad. Siebert.
17. Statement by William Crafts.
18. Memoir of Samuel E. Sewall. Tiffany.
19. Memoir of W. L. Garrison. His sons.
20. New England Magazine. 1890.
21. Sketches of Brookline. Woods.
22. Scrap Book of Theodore Parker. Printed in October, 1899.